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  1. Hi. K Sorensen. Thank you for making nuclear physics exciting again.
    For the Thorium molten salt reactor: In the unlikely case you have not already thought of this may I suggest.
    To avoid the necessity of starting up with some U233 and the licensing/security problems, what you could do is to insert a “few” normal PWR low enriched U235 fuel pins (shorter than normal for the depth , or sloped for extraction,but whatever), together with as many control pins and monitoring pins as necessary into some vertical carbon moderator/guides into the “stream” of Thorium molten salt. (hopefully mechanically straightforward). Effectively making a really small Uranium reactor which would have smaller volume than normal because of the carbon moderator. Chemically it would remain a chemically pure, (Zero contaminated Uranium), Thorium reactor. No coolant or other chemistry would need to be added. Just a way to scram the Uranium reactor in the event of loss of coolant.

    These pins would only have to remain until the Thorium reactor had bred enough U233 to be self sustaining.
    With enough inserted Uranium pins it might even melt the powdered frozen salt , no external heater required.

    You could make a much smaller research or even a scalable power reactor by leaving the rods in and replacing them as needed, thus reducing the startup investment mountain.

    My best wishes for your endeavors with Thorium.

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